After installing Windows 7 Home Premium on a blank hard drive from an installation disk (iso file either on a DVD or USB stick) you would expect it to update. Clicking the Check for Updates gives a message saying there is a problem showing a number that you can investigate if you care to do so. You might think this is rather strange as there was no problem some time ago and you wonder what is going on. For me this problem appeared after upgrading two computers for friends who wanted a genuine copy of Windows 7. Not being computer people Home Premium was quite suitable for their needs. It has been verified that three Win 7 iso files found on the net are all the same as their MD5 checksum numbers matched numbers provided by MicroSoft. Nothing wrong with the installations and another that was made on a spare hard drive to investigate with.
After a week of trying various things a solution has been found that may work for you.
You will need three things:
1) Windows6.1-KB3102810-x86.msu (for 32 bit) or Windows6.1-KB3102810-x64.msu (for 64 bit)
If you copy the file names into Google that should take you to the page they can be downloaded from. If you get problems accessing MS web pages with IE then try Chrome.
Install the update (1) first. After that run item 2. If that says all problems are fixed try 'Check for Updates' as it may now work. Should there still be problems that item 2 does not fix then install and run item 3. Updates have worked OK after using these three items.
This method has been applied to two new installations on the test drive and two updated computers, all of which now find and download updates.
Shortly afterwards Skype stopped working on my own machine and I ended up starting from a blank C: partition, leaving partitions D: and E: intact. Previous installs had no bother with updates but now checking for updates brought up the now expected 'unknown error' messages. Using the methods described here the problem was resolved. I am reasonably sure it is MS doing this on purpose with the intention of putting people off using Windows 7 as they want the whole world to use Windows 10. There is so much about Windows 10 that I do not like that I will not be 'upgrading', if that is what they call it.
This page, published during March 2016, is intended to assist anybody with similar problems.
If you cannot find them there is a 7zip file; send me an email - address on index page.